The existence of learning in the Madrasah teachers still play an important role. The role can not be replaced and taken over by anything. This is because there are many human elements, attitudes, value system, feelings, motivations, habits, etc. that can not be replaced by another element. Teachers are a very dominant factor and the most important in formal education for students in general because the teacher is often used as a role model and even the cast of self-identification.
Imam Al Ghazali an expert on Islamic educators also perceive that educators have a major and very important position. He suggests the primacy and importance of educators with mensitir some hadiths and atsar.
The Prophet SAW said, “Whoever studied one chapter of science to teach to men, so he be rewarded seventy Siddiq (the person who is always right, justify the Prophet, like Abu Bakr As-Siddiq).” Prophet Isa said, “Whoever clever and charity as well as teaching, that person called the” great man “in all corners of the sky”. The Prophet said, “At best gift and gifts are words bernikmat. Then you must save thee well. Then you bring to your brother Muslim, you teach him. The act is thus the same as a year of worship. ” Similarly the Prophet SAW said, “that Allah Almighty, his angels, the contents of the heavens and the earth until the ant is in the hole and fish in the sea, all praying to the man who taught the virtues of man”. The Prophet SAW said, “there is no one musli give benefits to his brother, a more mainstream than the good news that he made, then forwarded to others as well. The Prophet SAW said, “A word virtue is heard by a Muslim and then taught and diamalkannya is better for him than a year of worship.” The Prophet SAW said, “Anyone who hides his knowledge then God will be trapped with a bridle of fire of hell”.
Imam Al Ghazali also argued about the noble work of teaching. He said:
“A pious who want to practice what one has learned, is called a great empire in all klangit. And like the sun that illuminates the other realms and have a light within him, and he’s like a perfume fragrance to others, because she did smell good. Anyone who has taught the kingdom, he had chosen a big and important job. Therefore, let him teach her behavior and teaching obligations. ”
In addition to arguments such as the above passage, Imam Al-Ghazali also argued the importance of teaching by using a reasonable proposition. He said:
“Honor and whether the job is measured by what is done. Goldsmith more noble than the tanners, because the jeweler gold processing a very noble metal, leather processing and leather tanning buffalo. Teachers treat people who are considered the most noble creature of all God’s creatures. Therefore teaching job very noble, because humans are processing. Not only that keutamaanya, teachers cultivate a noble part of the members of the men, the mind and soul in order to refine, purify and bring it closer to God alone. ”
From the above description can be concluded that:
1. Actions educate / teach a command that must be carried out and anyone who dodge this obligation is threatened with punishment of hell fire confinement.
2. Actions educate / teach the good deeds that will drain jariyah reward for science is taught is still diamalkan people who learn
3. Actions educate / teach the good deeds that can bring maqfirah of Allah SWT
4. Actions educating / teaching is a very noble act since the glorious process of human organs.
Once the importance and the noble task of calling a teacher, then an educator must have certain properties so that he could perform the task with the best. The properties are according to Prof. Dr.Moh.Athiyah Al-Abrasyi in Prof. H. Bustami A. Ghani (1974) as follows:
1. PIETY properties, do not give priority to the material and teaching, seeking the pleasure of Allah SWT alone.
2. A teacher should be far from the major sins, the nature of riya ‘(look for the name), envy, enmity, strife and other despicable nature.
3. Ikhlas in employment. Sincerity and honesty of a teacher in her work is the best path toward success in the tasks and successful students.
4. A teacher must be forgiving toward his disciples, he unable to hold back, hold anger, heart field, a lot of patience and do not be grumpy for reasons which are small, have personality and self-esteem.
5. A teacher should love his students, like his love towards his own children and think about their situation as he thought about the situation his own children. Even should he loved his students more than her own.
6. A teacher must know the character, nature, customs, habits, tastes and thoughts of his disciples that he was not mistaken in educating students.
7. A teacher must master the subjects that will be given, as well as deepen their knowledge so that the subjects he teaches will not be shallow.
From the discussion above shows that a teacher is required to perform duties in a professional, good attitude and personality as well as the mastery of knowledge in teaching. So it can be said, a teacher will carry out the task successfully when he keguruannya professionals. In addition, the duty of a noble teacher and get a high degree given by God Almighty because they teach science to others. To ensure that the teacher as a professional job then the terms and principal characteristics of professional work by Dr. Sanjaya Vienna, M.Pd. (2005:142-143) as follows:
1. “Professional work is supported by a particular science in depth that could only be obtained from educational institutions as appropriate, so that its performance is based on scientific in its possession that can be justified scientifically.
2. A profession stressed to a certain expertise in specific areas according to the type of profession, so that the profession is one with which others can be strictly separated.
3. Level of capabilities and expertise of a profession based on education background was experiencing recognized by society, so the higher education academic background in accordance with the profession, the higher the level of expertise so that the higher the level of recognition it receives.
4. A profession other than required by the society also has a social impact on society, so society has a very high sensitivity to any effects arising from the work of the profession. ”
To understand that whether teachers have met the criteria of the job as a professional job then the feature and characteristic of the teaching process as teachers’ professional duties according to Sanjaya (2005:143-144) as follows:
1. “Teaching is not only convey the subject matter alone, but of a work aimed at and are complex. Therefore, in practice, required some special skills that are based on the concept and specific knowledge. That is, every decision in carrying out teaching activities are not based on subjective considerations or tasks that can be done at will, but based on a consideration based on certain knowledge, so that what teachers do in teaching can be justified scientifically. Therefore, to become a professional teacher takes the appropriate educational background, the educational background of teacher training.
2. As with the duty of a doctor who works to heal diseases of his patients, then the duty of a teacher also has a clear field of expertise, which led students toward desired goals. Indeed the work of a doctor or other professional unlike the work of a teacher. The performance of non-teacher profession as a doctor usually can be seen in a short time. But not so with the teacher. Results of work as a teacher to develop interests and talents and potential of a person, including developing a certain attitude requires a long enough time so that new results can be seen after some time, perhaps a generation. Therefore, the failure of teachers to students membelajarkan means the failure to form a single human generation.
3. In order to do their job well according to their expertise, adequate level of education required. Being a teacher is not just enough to understand the materials to be delivered, but also the necessary skills and understanding of the knowledge and skills, such as an understanding of the psychology of human development, an understanding of the theory of behavioral change, the ability to implement various learning theory, the ability to design, and utilize various media and learning resources, the ability to design appropriate learning strategies and so forth, including the ability to evaluate the process and findings. Hence, a teacher not only knew about what to teach, but also understand about how to teach. Such capabilities may not come by itself, but only one process may be obtained from an adequate education from a specialized institution of teacher education institutions.
4. The task of teachers is to prepare generations of humans who can live and play an active role in society. Therefore not possible to release the job of a teacher of social life. This means, what the teacher will have an impact on people’s lives. Conversely the high degree of professionalism a person, such person’s level teacher education, the higher the rewards given to the public.
5. The work of teachers is not a static work, but work that dynamic, which forever shall conform and adapt to the development of science and technology. Hence, teachers demanded is sensitive to the dynamics of the development community, both in the development of the forever changing needs, social development, culture, politics included the development of technology. ”
Based on the traits and characteristics, the job of teachers is not easy, but need that extra effort. Teachers are required to have performance that is able to provide and realize the hopes and desires of all parties, especially the general public who have trusted madrassas and teachers in developing students. In achieving a good quality of education is strongly influenced by the performance of teachers in performing their duties so that the performance demands of teachers to be essential to achieve educational success. In general, a good quality of education a benchmark for success that demonstrated the performance of teachers.
According Roestiyah (1989: 80) the function of teachers in the learning process are:
a. As a teacher (instructional) in charge of planning and implementing teaching programs have been compiled programs and evaluate student learning outcomes and evaluating teaching programs that have been implemented. As a teacher of teachers is an active role (medium) between the party educates with science. “In general it can be said that the duties and responsibilities that must be implemented by the teacher is getting other people to do good. The task was identical to the Islamic da’wah in order to invite Muslims to do good.
In the Qur’an Ali Imran verse 104 Allah says:
“And let a party among you who call people to goodness, calls to the ma’ruf and prevent it from being unjust, they are the ones who are lucky.”
Profession of a teacher can also say as a helper of others, because he delivered the good things in accordance with Islamic teachings for others to implement the teachings of Islam. Thus will tertolonglah others in understanding the teachings of Islam. Mustafa Al-Maraghi (1986: 31) says “People who talk in this case are the people who invite to kebaikkan, who have two tasks, namely ordered to do good and do prohibit unjust”, the commentary of Al-Azhar (1983:31) , explained that: “A people who made herself to invite or call people to do good, do tell which ma’ruf namely, a proper, decent, polite, and prevent it from being unjust.
Based on the above verse and commentary to be understood that in carrying out the duties and responsibilities, the teacher is obliged to assist the child’s development towards maturity in accordance with Islamic teachings, especially in the educational goals contained elements that are religious purpose, namely for the human form of faithful and devoted to God Almighty.
b. As educators (educators), meaning that a teacher not only served as a teacher, but also to educate (to educase), to direct the students on the level of maturity that kamil insane personality along with the purpose God created them.
In this connection Abidin (1989: 29) also asserted that “the main task and responsibility that must be implemented by teachers in the madrasas is to guide and teach all personality development of students in Islamic teachings. According to Al-Ghazali’s teacher should have a good character, because the kids always look pendidiknya students as an example to be followed.
While Nur Uhbayati (1997: 72) suggests the duties and responsibilities that must be implemented by educators (teachers), among others:
1. Guiding students to the streets in accordance with the teachings of Islam
2. Create a situation of religious education is a state in which the actions of education can take place with satisfactory results in accordance with the demands of Islamic teachings.
On the other hand Nizar Samson (1993: 44) reveal about a series of tasks in the education of teachers: “a series of teaching, giving encouragement, praise, punish, giving examples, to get used. Imam Barnadib (1993: 40) adds to the duties of teachers associated with the command, prohibition, advising, gifts, giving opportunities, and closing opportunities. Therefore, it can be understood that the task of educators is not just teaching, in addition served as a motivator and facilitator in the learning process, so that all potential learners can be good and dynamic actualization.
c. As the leader of (managerial), meaning that he led himself, students, and community-related, involving the effort direction, supervision, organization, pengkontrolan, and participation in programs conducted. Teacher education is a leader in implementing the teaching and learning, teachers must be accountable to God for kepeimipinannya as contained in the hadith which reads:
حديث عبد الله بن عمرى رضى الله عنهما عن النبي صلى الله وسلم قال: كلكم راع وكلكم مسؤل عن راعية (رواه البخارى)
It means: “Hadith Abdullah bin` Umar that the Prophet actually said: “Every ye are the leaders who will be asked to answer for their leadership pertangguna
Based on the above hadith is understood that the responsibility in Islam is personal and social. In formal education (Madrasah) teacher is a leader in the classroom that is responsible not only against his actions, but also against the acts of people who are under the command and supervision of students.
When viewed from the details of the duties and responsibilities that must be implemented by teachers, especially teachers of Islamic education / madrasah, Al-Abrasyi citing Al-Ghazali’s opinion points out:
1. Must put a sense of affection towards pupils and impose their own child like treatment.
2. Or services do not expect a thank you, but intend to teach it to find keridhoan God and draw closer to god.
3. Give advice to students on each occasion, even use every opportunity to advise and menunjukinya
4. Preventing students from something that is not good character with the street alone if possible and by the way, frankly, with smooth roads and do not criticize
5. A teacher must perform its science and not different words with deeds.
In Muhibbin exposure revealed by Shah (2000: 250-252), basically the function or role of teachers in teaching and learning is as a director of learning (study director). This means that each teacher is expected to be very clever directing learning activities for students to achieve learning success (academic performance) as established in the target activities of the learning process. Thus, the more it is clear that the role of teachers in modern educational world today has increased from just teaching to learning director. Consequently, the duties and responsibilities of teachers are becoming more complex and too heavy.
Expansion of duties and responsibilities of these teachers bring consequences emergence of particular functions that become an integral part (together) in the competence of teacher professionalism that carried by the teachers. According to Gagne, each teacher serves as:
a. Designer of instruction (teaching drafting)
Teacher functions as designer of instruction (teaching drafting) require teachers to always be able and ready to design teaching and learning activities effective and efficient.
b. Manager of instruction (teaching managers)
The function of this teacher requires the ability of teachers in managing (organizing and controlling) all stages of the learning process.
c. The evaluator of student learning (student learning achievement assessment.)
This function requires teachers to constantly keep track of the progress level of academic achievement or academic performance of students in each learning period.
Furthermore, to perform professional duties as teachers, there are seven components that must be owned by a teacher, namely:
a. Teachers as learning resources; The teacher’s role as a source of learning is closely related to the mastery of subject matter properly. Professional teachers when he can master the subject matter well, so that he actually acted as a source of learning for students. Whatever is asked students relating to their subject matter he teaches, he will be able to answer with confidence. As a source of learning, teachers must have more reference material than the students. Teachers must be able to demonstrate a learning resource that can be learned by students who usually have a speed study on the average of other students. Teachers must be able to map the subject matter, for example by determining the core material (core), which must be learned students, where additional material, and where the material that recalled because never discussed.
b. The teacher as facilitator; As a teacher facilitator role in providing services to facilitate students in learning activities. In order to carry out the role of facilitator, there are some things that must be understood teachers:
First, teachers need to understand the many-types of media and learning resources and functions of each of these instances. Second, teachers need to have skills in designing a medium. Third, teachers are required to be able to organize various types of media as well as to utilize as a source of learning, including using information technology. Fourth, as facilitator teacher charged for having the ability to communicate and interact with students.
c. Teacher As a manager; As a manager of learning (learning manager), teachers play a role in creating a learning climate that allows students to learn comfortably. Through good management of classroom teachers to keep class in order to remain conducive to the learning process of all students. As menager teacher has four general functions.
First, the planned learning objectives. Second, organize a variety of learning resources to achieve learning objectives. The three leads are included to motivate, encourage, and stimulate students. Fourth monitor whether everything is working properly or not in order pencapaiaan destination.
d. Teacher as a demonstrator; The teacher’s role as a demonstrator is to demonstrate the role of teacher to student for everything that can make the students better understand and comprehend every message delivered. There are two contexts of teachers as a demonstrator. First, as a demonstrator means teachers must demonstrate exemplary qualities in every aspect of life, and the teacher is an ideal figure that can be exemplified by the students. Second, as a demonstrator of teachers should be able to show you how for each subject matter can be better understood and internalized by every student.
e. Teachers as mentors; task is to keep teachers, directs, and guides for students to grow and develop according to its potential. In order for teachers to act as mentors, there are two things that must be possessed. First, teachers must understand students who are dibimbingnya. For example, understand about the style and custom learning, understand the potential and talent. Second, teachers must understand and skilled in planning, well plan objectives and competencies to be achieved, or plan a learning process.
f. The teacher as a motivator; In the process of learning motivation is one aspect that is very important dynamic. Often there is less student achievement was not caused by a lack of ability. But due to the lack of motivation to learn. Therefore, to obtain an optimal learning results, teachers are required to generate creative ways to motivate student learning. Some things that should be considered in order to generate motivation to learn are as follows: (1) Clarify the objectives, (2) arouse interest in students, (3) Creating a fun learning environment, (4) Provide a reasonable compliment to the success of students, (5) Provide a positive assessment, (6) Give comments on the results of student work, and (7) create competition and cooperation.
g. Teachers as evaluators; As an evaluator, the teacher role is to collect data or information about the success of learning that has been done. Evaluation is conducted only on learning outcomes (in the form of value or numbers) but also made to the process, performance, and skills students in the learning process. Activities aimed to assess the success of students plays an important role. For the evaluation of teachers to determine whether students who already have teaching competence has been defined, so they deserve to be given a new learning program, or even vice versa student can not achieve minimum standards, so they need to be given remedial.